In the north from the sea and in the south till the top of Boztepe, city center rises as irregular terraces. Degirmendere, Kuzgundere (or Tabakhane) and Zağnos rivers divide the settlement from south to north as deep straits. On the area located between Tabakhane and Zagnos rivers which shaped like an uneven high table, the oldest accomodation unit that known is detected. That is why it is believed that the name of Trabzon comes from the Greek word “trapezos” which means table or trapeze. The name of Trabzon as Trapezos is encountered the first time in an antique source “Anabasis” where the events happened during the BCE 4 century is told which is written by Greek commander Kesnophon. After the western Anatolia, Miletusians went to Black Sea Region and they set up colonies there. Trabzon is counted as one of these colonies whose center is Sinop and researchers point out that period as the establishment of the city. Whereas local tribes like Kolkhs, Drills and Makrons had lived near Trabzon before that period. At the same century, Black Sea Region invaded by Kimmers from Caucasia and then by Iskits. However the time of the invasions are debated. In BCE 6th century, Trabzon entered the domination of Persians and remanied within in a satrapy called Pont Cappadocia. In BCE 334, Macedonian King Alexander the Great put an end to domination of Persians in the whole Anatolia. After Alexander the Great’s sudden death, Mithridates who is the son of the satrap of Pont II.Ariantes established the Pontus Empire with the support of the local folk. In BCE 280, Trabzon stayed within the boundaries of Pontus Empire whose center is Amasya. In BCE I.century Romans started to invade the Anatolia. Pontus Empire fell apart upon the loss of the battle in Kelkit valley with Romans. Thus Trabzon entered the domination of Romans in BCE 66. In BCE 27, period of realm started in Rome with Augustus. As the result of administrative arrangements of Augustus, Trabzon was located in a vassalage named Pontus Polemoniacus and during the Emperor Tiberius period(BCE 14-37), it was located in the state of Cappadocia. In the period of Emperor Nero (54-68), it became a liberal state. Trabzon, for that period, takes part in the books of historians as “famous” and “rich”. In the period of Vespasian who considered important the defend of the east, Trabzon was included to the Cappadocia-Galatya state. At the period of famous Emperor Hadrian, town planning was important; religious and military buildings, roads, aqueducts were built. In the Roman period, on coins of Trabzon in front there was the bust of the Roman emperor and in the back there was mythological figure and it was written in Greek. In 276, Trabzons was completely destroyed by the Gots who invaded the eastern Black Sea region. We understand from a Latin tablet in Trabzon Museum that there was again a town planning in the city in the late periods of Roman Empire when top of the empire were Diocletian, Maximian, Constantinius and Galerius. When the Roman Empire divided in two in 395, Trabzon stayed as a part of eastern Roma aka Byzantine Empire whose center is Istanbul. Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Justinianus (527-564) had the fortification walls in Trabzon restored. At the period of Heraclius (610-641), the empire started to divide into military districts. Trabzon became the center of the Khaldia Theme in the period of Teophilos (829-842). Since the beginning of the 8th century, Muslim Arabs came to eastern black sea region and Trabzon when they made invasions on Anatolia. Upon the Latin’s take over the Byzantine Empire by the IV.Crusade in 1204, Alexios and David who are the grandchildren of Emperor I.Andronikos Komnenos established the Komnenos Empire in Trabzon in 1204 by the help of the Georgian Queen Tamara. Through setting up bonds of matrimony and taxes with Anatolian Seljuk Empire, Komnenos Empire whose brightest period was the period of I.Manuel Komnenos(1238-1265), continued to exist politically. Upon the effect of the silver maidens in Gümüşhane, the Empire was powerful economically and on the coins “the happiest” was written. After I.Bayezid conquered Samsun, Trabzon Komnenos Empire had to pay taxes to Ottoman Empire. David Komnenos stopped paying taxes and even wanted to take back what they gave and he suggested alliance with powerful European states against the Ottoman. Upon that event, Fatih Sultan Mehmet invaded Trabzon and ended the domination of Komnenos Empire. At the time of Ottoman Empire,Trabzon was administrated as states and sanjaks by Sultan’s sons and governors. The first flag officer was Hızır Bey. In 1470, Prince Abdullah became the flag officer of Trabzon and he lived there till 1479 with his mother Şirin Hatun. Yavuz Sultan Selim was also a flag officer in Trabzon between 1491 and 1512 and his son named Suleyman was borned there. In the 16th century, Trabzon became the center of the state after uniting with Lazistan Sanjak whose center is Batum. In 1868, Trabzon became a province and the sanjaks of Lazistan, Gümüşhane and Canik became one with it. During the WWI, Russians attacked Trabzon (14 April 1916). Militia of Trabzon made it a guerilla war during the attack. On Plateau Sultan Murat in Çaykara, Baltacı in Of, Yanbolu rivers in Arsin, they fought successfully against Russians but they could not stop it fully thus Russians invaded Trabzon on 14 April 1916. Greeks and Armenians tortured local folk and killed many of them during the Russians stay in Trabzon. Bolshevik Revolution happened in 1917 in Russia, and tsarit regime was destroyed. Russians faced panic upon this event. That made Russians retreat. On the other side, Turkish gangs who was in Karadağ went to Trabzon through Akcaabat, they entered Trabzon on 24 February 1918. In the period of Republic, Ataturk went to Trabzon three times; 1924, 1930 and 1937. The first time he went there on 15 September 1924 is admitted as “Ataturk Day” by the people of Trabzon.
Trabzon Castle: The castle and the fortification walls are one of the oldest structures in the city. From sea coast to hills, Trabzon Castle is in the city center of Trabzon Turkey.
Churches and Monasteries: World famous Sumela Monastery is the most gorgeous structure in the middle black sea region. It is also known by folks as the Virgin Mary. The monastery which located 300 meters above the valley maintained the tradition of monasteries locating away from city centers. As well as Sumela Monastery there are other churches and monasteries in the city like Vazelon Monastery, Kızlar Monastery, Kaymaklı Monastery,Peristera Monastery and St. Eugenius Church.
Museums: People who want to find out about the Trabzon’s and the region’s history, traditions and culture may visit museums like Trabzon Museum, Trabzon Agiasofia Museum, Cevdet Sunay Museum.
Summer Camping Ground: Trabzon is an important city in the Black Sea Region for tableland tourism. Tablelands of Erikbeli, Lapazan, Haçka Obası, Garester, Şolma, Sultan Murat, Sekersu ve Haldizen are worth to see in Trabzon. With its nature beauties, Trabzon has a treasure in every corner. If you want to explore the nature of Trabzon you should see Cal Cave, Sera Lake, Altındere Valley, Akcabat, Surmene, Trabzon Macka and Caykara.